For centuries science has strived to prove that we don’t need God to explain the universe. Lightning, earthquakes, and babies have always been seen as acts of God. Now we know the reason behind them. Scientist have developed new, better telescopes and machines that have raised new questions about the origin of life and the infinite universe in general. This has led to more myths explaining the origin of the universe and all in it. The untold mystery behind it all.
A recent discovery made by molecular biologist has stunned the scientific world with a different discovery resenting the negative nature of science towards the whole idea of a sole creator of life. This is all about sophisticated coding within DNA which has proven the universe appears to be part of a grand design. (Teleological or design argument). The fields of astronomy and molecular biology mainly emphasize the nature of the DNA coding which reveals intelligence and the fact that the universe is just right for life and it had a beginning.

The universe had a one- time beginning. Most scientist believe that the universe never had a beginning and that mass, space, and energy have always been there. Edwin Hubble, a 20th century astronomer, discovered that the universe is expanding and mathematically calculated the rewind process discovering that everything in the universe had a beginning. This included energy, space and time. In 1992, COBE satellite experiments proved that the universe had a beginning. This was explained as a flash of light and energy. Robert Jastrow further described the act as an explosion of a cosmic hydrogen bomb leading to creation of the universe.
Everything is created from nothing. Scientist have always regarded the creation of the universe from nothing as unscientific. George Smoot, scientist in charge of COBE experiments, linked the big bang as an event, to the Bible notation of creation from nothing. Cosmologist soon realized that a chance cosmic explosion could never bring about life any more than a nuclear bomb would, unless it was precisely engineered to do so. That discovery suggested that a designer must have planned it all. Scientist now started to admit that the Biblical context of creation explains it better. They began using the names ‘Super intellect’ and ‘creator’ to describe the designer.
Furthermore, the universe is finely- tuned for life. Physicists calculated that for life to exist, gravity and other forces of nature had to be just right or the universe couldn’t exist. Had the expansion rate been slightly unstable or weak, all matter would be pulled together by gravity. Stephen Hawking, wrote that if the rate of expansion one second after the big bang had been smaller by even one part in a hundred thousand million million, the universe would have re- collapse before it even reached its present size. For life to exist, the conditions on the universe need to be just right. Elements such as oxygen are essential for life and the size, temperature, relative proximity and chemical makeup of the sun, planet and moon need to be just right.
The question of accident or miracle is still unanswered. It is unlikely for human life to exist by chance from a random explosion in cosmic history. This actually defies the laws of probability. Many scientist are concluding that someone designed and created the universe. Hawking speculates that other unknown universes may exist, increasing the odds that ours is perfectly fine- tuned for life. Hoyle wrote that a common sense interpretation of the facts suggest that a super- intellect has monkeyed with physics, as well as chemistry and biology, and that there are no blind forces worth speaking about in nature. Although Einstein wasn’t religious, he described the creator as an intelligence of such superiority that compared with it, all the systematic thinking and acting of human beings is an utterly insignificant reflection.
Atheist Christopher Hitchens was also perplexed by the fact that life couldn’t exist if things were different by just one degree. Davies also acknowledges that, there is powerful evidence that there is something going on behind it all.
The language of life, the DNA, intelligence. Molecular biologist have discovered intricately complex design in the microscopic world of DNA. Materialist like Richard Dawkins, argue DNA evolved by natural selection without a creator yet the brilliance behind it and the origin of the intricate complexity is unexplainable. Francis Crick, co- discoverer of the intricate complexity, believed that it could never have originated on earth naturally. The coding behind DNA reveals such intelligence and it operates as a language with its own very complex software code. Dawkins argued that the complexity was due to natural selection yet Crick remarked that natural selection could not have produced the first molecule. Atheist Antony flew, admitted that the software behind DNA is far too complex to have originated without a designer.


MPESA is a mobile phone based money transfer and financing service founded in March 2007 by Bernard Gesora and launched by Vodafone for SAFARICOM and Vodacom. The word MPESA is derived from a Swahili word pesa that means money and M which stands for mobile. MPESA service was first launched in Kenya and has since expanded to Tanzania, South Africa, India and other countries. Mpesa has enabled its users to deposit and withdraw money from a network of agents situated all over the country. Mpesa is the most successful mobile based financial service with over 17 million MPESA account registered in 2012 alone.93% of Kenyans using MPESA have access to the formal financial system that includes mobile payments and hence reducing crime that is associated with robbery and corruption. Mpesa allows users to deposit, withdraw, transfer money and pay for goods and services that is lipa Na MPESA easily using a mobile phone. Since 2007, MPESA has revolutionized the way Kenyans spend, save and send money.
The issuer of MPESA accounts is SAFARICOM. Users are charged a small fee for sending and withdrawing money using MPESA service. Transaction charges depend on how much money is being transferred or withdrawn. The cost of transaction is a fixed amount for a given range of transaction sizes as shown below: In 2016, MPESA moved about 52 billion CHF in Kenya with a revenue of 41 billion Kshs. In 2017 the revenue increased up to 55 billion. Mpesa has hence proved that it is possible to make a profit will also improving the lives of the people in Kenya. Mpesa alone has increased the per capita consumption levels lifting at least 2% of Kenyan households out of poverty.
Mpesa has enabled your SAFARICOM SIM card to work like an account stored on their cell phones for virtual currency (digital account balance), that is managed by SAFARICOM. Being a branchless banking service, its customers can pay for goods and services as well as send money to other mobile phone users and deposit and withdraw cash at any retail agent outlet network within the country. SAFARICOM deposit the full value customers store in MPESA accounts at a pooled account in a regular account. Using MPESA to send money is like simply sending a text. When you want to send money, your phone will generate a quick code that transmits the request over the carrier’s computer because the value in your account is entirely backed by highly liquid deposit at a commercial bank.
During the first years of testing and using MPESA, SAFARICOM Vodafone had adopted a monolithic design pattern. This pattern is a model where all application components are tangled up as one artifact that is deployed on the production environment. This caused a lot of transaction delays. The delays were attributed to the architecture that involved all requests (deposit, withdrawal, checking balance etc.) being handled by one application. Due to this, a new architecture was adopted called the micro service design. The micro service software architecture pattern involves separation of non-dependent modules from the application core into independent system components which can be run and managed independently. The new MPESA G2 has been more effective and available.
The micro service architecture in MPESA involves 5 independent components managed independently. These include; Data, Deployment, Discovery, style and communication. The data component runs database per service. The Safaricom database servers initially located in German were brought to Kenya at August 2016 through a popular campaign “bring Mpesa home”. The deployment manages multiple service per host and single service per host. The discovery runs client side discovery and server side discovery. The style component runs messaging and remote procedure invocation and the communication component manages API gateway.
Customers can use their mobile phones to transfer money, check their account balances, pay bills, purchase mobile phone credit and transfer such credit to others. They can also make deposits and withdrawal of cash from their accounts by visiting an MPESA agent. You can send money to any mobile phone user, even if they are not a SAFARICOM subscriber. To successfully send money, you first need to fund your own MPESA account though agent deposit. A registered SAFARICOM SIM card with MPESA activated is required. Open the SIM Toolkit application available on android devices and choose option SAFARICOM. 2 choices are displayed, that is ‘SAFARICOM+’ and ‘MPESA’. Select ‘MPESA’ and the MPESA menu is displayed.
To send money, select ‘send money’. You have to choose whether to search SIM contacts or to enter phone number. Selecting ‘search SIM contacts’ means you want to send money to someone on your contact list. After selecting this, you are required to write the name of the contact you want to send money to as saved on your phone. You are given an opportunity to select the name you want and confirm the selection. Selecting ‘enter phone number’ will display an area where you are required to enter the phone number. Once done, you are required to enter the amount you wish to send and your M-PESA pin number. Once the money is sent successfully, you have an option to confirm if the number you send the money to is the correct number or to stop the transaction in which case you reply with any letter or number. If all is correct, you will confirmation message accepting or rejecting your transaction depending on factors such as; your MPESA balance, do you have enough money to transfer to another person?, the authensity of the pin number, is the MPESA pin you entered the correct number? Etc.
To withdraw cash, press ‘withdraw cash’ from the MPESA menu. This option enables you to withdraw cash from your M-PESA account through an MPESA agent or the ATM. You are to choose either to withdraw from agent of from the ATM. The most common withdrawal transactions are through the agent. The agent number is provided by the agent and once you have entered the agent number and press okay, you enter the amount to be withdrawn and enter your MPESA pin number. Once the transaction is complete you will receive a verification message informing you that you have withdrawn certain amount of money from your MPESA account at the MPESA agent (name). An original ID is required for this transaction.

ATM withdrawal service is available to MPESA registered customers. To withdraw cash, select ‘withdraw cash’ from the MPESA menu, select from ATM and enter the agent number which is 555555 if withdrawing from KCB, family bank, NIC bank, pesapoint and diamond trust bank. If withdrawing from equity bank ATM, use agent number286286. Enter your MPESA pin. You will receive an SMS notification from MPESA with a 6 digit authorization code with is to be entered into the ATM. On the ATM, select MPESA button, enter the 6 digit ATM authorization code and enter your mobile number, the amount you wish to withdraw and the ATM will dispense your cash and issue you with a receipt. You will also receive an SMS from MPESA confirming the transaction.
If MPESA was to stop working for 24 hours in Kenya, 93% of Kenyans using MPESA services would be highly disadvantaged as they would suffer the probability of losing their money and worry about the safety of their money. If MPESA was to stop working altogether it would cause a major impact in the lives of Kenyans as day to day activities which are dependent on the service will be disrupted or even terminated. Thousands of Kenyans employed by MPESA would end up losing their jobs which could be the only thing helping them put food on the table. Kenya being a country dependent on mobile money for peer-to-peer transactions, such sudden change will greatly affect the economy of this country. The Kenyan government hence oversees the trust to make sure that SAFARICOM can’t use the funds and also that Kenyans won’t lose their money if SAFARICOM ever goes out of business.
Mpesa has faced numerous cases of hacking. Fraudsters are always looking for new ways to con people. Since it is hard to infiltrate the MPESA systems, they opt for social engineering which involves tricking unsuspecting people into breaking normal procedures and then manipulating them into revealing their MPESA PIN or withdrawing from ATM remotely. MPESA has ensured the security of its customer’s money by initiating report fraud to 333 through SMS, advising its users to keep their PIN confidential, and to differentiate the actual messages from Mpesa and other users. Mpesa has also introduced mini statement where one can check transactions for a period of time to prevent fraud.
On November 2014, SAFARICOM launched the android app SAFARICOM ledger for its MPESA users. The mysafaricom application is available on the google play store and has enabled its users to be able to better manage the service they receive from Safaricom company. At March 2019, the application was updated to include MPESA. This has enabled over 1 million smartphone users to transact even faster and take full advantage of the app.
On February 2018, google play store started taking payments for apps via Kenya’s MPESA service.
On January 2019, SAFARICOM launched fuliza service, an overdraft facility enabling MPESA users to loan money to pay for goods and services directly from the Mpesa account. The next big goal for Mpesa is to expand across Africa, giving its services to as many countries as possible.


Road transport is the leading mode of transport in Kenya. According to the Kenya roads board, there is a total of 160886 km of roads in Kenya.

The most commonly used vehicles in Kenya are the psv/ matatu. There are around 100000 matatus nationwide with almost 40% operating in the central business district (CBD). About 70% of the capital’s 1.3 million commuters use a matatu at some point every month for their commute. There are over 500000 private vehicles in Kenya being used by a small percentage of Kenya to navigate.
The largest bus company in Kenya is the Kenya bus service. The oldest bus company in Kenya is the coast bus which runs a day and night service between Nairobi and Mombasa taking at least 9 hours in each trip. The ascott operates a minivans offering shuttle services between Nairobi and Kisii and the guardian’s bus co. ltd runs a guardian bus service that operates day and night passenger bus to western Kenya, rift valley and Mombasa. Some other bus companies include; modern coast, nyamira express, vanga, simba coach, xenon, dreamline, Messina, chania among many others.
Another widely used means of transport is the motorcycle taxi commonly known as boda boda. The boda boda is very effective at navigating heavy traffic. There are about 4.8 million boda bodas in Kenya serving majority of Kenyans due to their cheaper price and time saving characteristics. However, boda bodas are considered the most dangerous means of transport since it is often used by criminals and terrorists. Recently, the Nairobi county government banned the boda boda from operating at the CBD due to the increasing accidents they cause.
Raid hailing apps like Uber, little, taxify, mondo and mara moja are the leading taxi hailing apps in Kenya. Since 2010, raid hailing apps have gained popularity with 1 out of every 10 kenyas using them for transportation and delivery. The most common ride hailing app is the uber and little app. Uber is a technology platform that connects driver-partners and riders. An uber app is used to request a ride. When a nearby driver-partner accepts the request, the app displays an estimated time of arrival for the driver-partner heading your pickup location. The app also notifies you when the driver-partner is about to arrive and also provide you with information like the license plate number, the vehicle type and the first name of the driver-partner meant to connect you at pickup location. When you arrive at the destination and exit the vehicle, the fare is calculated automatically and the payment is done through payment method linked on the uber application. The passenger is the given a chance to rate the driver 1 to 5 stars.
Some of the boda boda hailing apps include; safeBoda, safe motors, taxify, Uber Bodas among others. These boda boda hailing apps offer a new way to navigate Nairobi faster and safer.The raid hailing apps are both affordable and convenient. Some of the many advantages include doorstep pickup, safer rides, time saving and privacy during transport.
Boda bodas have a place in kenyas future transport but instead of passengers, for delivery of goods. Projects like smart matatus, driver tracking and the SGR are the future for the nairobi’s transportation network. The standard gauge railway is a 485km heavy rail that connects Mombasa to Nairobi. Since the SGR also called the madaraka express opened in May 2017, over 1 million Kenyans have used it for transport and delivery services. The SGR has 10 passenger stations between Mombasa and Nairobi that constitutes the route of the madaraka express. From Mombasa the Madaraka express proceeds to Mariakani then to Miasenyi, Voi, Mtito Andei, Kibwezi, Emali, Athi river the finally terminates at Nairobi. The SGR offers affordable prices and few travel hours as compared to buses and other vehicles. However the SGR is not flexible due to the strict timetable and it can only stop at recognized passenger stations.


Positron emission tomography commonly abbreviated as PET is a powerful imaging method that makes use of a positron emitter such as fluorine-18 for observing brain structure and function by imaging human tissue in a degree of detail not possible with X-rays. The radionuclides used in PET decay is emission of a positron which behaves in a similar way to an electron but has a positive charge

When a biological substance is synthesized with one of its atoms replaced by an isotope that emits positrons, example the estrogen hormone is labelled with fluorine-18, the substance is injected into a patient’s blood steam from which it is taken up into the brain. At the end of its range, about 0.6mm in the tissue for most common PET radionuclide fluoride-18, the isotopes emits positrons each of which annihilates a nearby electron. In the process of annihilation, two 511KeV gamma y photons are emitted simultaneously at 180 degrees apart. A PET scanner consists of thin rings of scintillation detectors around the patient’s head pinpoints. If both y rays are detected by the scanner within a certain time of one another that is within a coincidence window then it is assumed that both originated from the same annihilation and that the original disintegration occurred along a line joining the two detection positions.
Data acquired in this way is reconstructed into an image of original radionuclide into an image of the original radionuclide distribution. The combination of high sensitivity resulting from the absence of collimators and the ability to perform an accurate correction for attenuation of the photons as they pass through the tissue, results in images of higher quality and quantitative accuracy that those that can be obtained using single photon emitters.
Two of the isotopes used are Oxygen-15, injected as H215O to measure blood flow and fluoride-18 bonded to a glucose uptake, which is a marker for energy and metabolism. Findings indicate that changes in blood flow and glucose uptake accompany normal or abnormal brain activity.
The introduction of PET/CT scanners which have the ability to acquire accurately registered functional and anatomic images in under 30minutes has been one of the major contributing factors of PET.


In 1895, a German physicist Wilhelm Prontgen noticed that cathode rays caused glass and metal to emit unusual rays which he later called x-ray as they were unknown. This and many other experiments led to the birth of the field of radioactivity. Radioactivity is the spontaneous emission of α, β and n particles or gamma rays from a decaying radionuclide. The discovery of radioactivity and X-rays has led to revolutionary advances in diagnosis and therapy. It was not until recently that megavoltage photon energies became available through use of betatrons, cobalt-60 gamma rays and linear accelerators. Advances in cancer treatment have prolonged survival, significantly increasing the number of people living with physical and psychosocial morbidities related to cancer and its treatment. Cobalt-60 has been used effectively for more than six decades to treat a variety of cancers worldwide especially in poorer countries such as Pakistan.

Radiation therapy is a complex process involving multiple steps with each step contributing to the overall quality of treatment. Essential radiation therapy dosimetric parameters are measured using a homogenous water phantom. Accurate dosimetry is a critical step during radiotherapy of cancer patients. External photon beam is usually performed using more than one radiation beam, in order to achieve a uniform dose distribution inside the target tissues and the lowest possible dose to healthy tissues surrounding the target. It is important to determine the radiation dose for specific body organs and tissues by using the International Atomic Energy Agency protocols to protect against undue exposure to ionizing radiation. Cobalt-60 therapy units contains a small cylinder of cobalt 60 in the treatment head of the apparatus. A patient lies on the table and a beam of gamma rays passes through a series of collimators and jaws which shape the beam as it is directed at the patient. The treatment head has to be rotated at different angles to attack the cancer tumor from different angles without exposing the healthy tissues.

In conclusion, cobalt-60 contributes to the health and wellbeing of a large proportion of the global population with cancer assuming that the technology is improved. Cobalt-60 therapy is relatively cost effective and viable, it has a positive economic, social and environment impact that is sustainable for the future.

David J Holme and Hazel Peck, (1993), ANALYTICAL BIOCHEMISTRY, second edition, John Wiley and sons inc, PG 203.
Sajjad Ahmed Memon, Asrar Ahmad Cheema, Naeem Ahmed Laghari, Hussain Mangi (J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2014;26(3)), ORIGINAL ARTICLE DOSE MEASUREMENT OF COBALT-60 RADIOTHERAPY BEAMS IN TREATMENT FIELDS, , PG 279.


Magic has a strong relation with magnetic and electrical energy. Magnetic energy. Magic and net. Energy is the most powerful thing in the universe. Learning to control and direct it is possible. The art of Magic is practiced along with certain words and sacred geometries. Common words used in magic rituals are words that produce powerful sound tones when spoken out its power.

Sound is able to direct energy because it carries certain frequency patterns that attract energy to flow in a controllable manner. Sound is one of the natural forces used by nature to create crystalline structures and sacred geometries which are sound can be used to direct energy to produce magic facts. You will know that words can be as powerful as swords
Genesis 1:- God created the universe by the word of His mouth. He said, LET THERE BE, and there was. On the sixth day He made man by His own image, He breath into his nostrils and man was filled with life. Man whose is made in the likeness of God can also say, let there be and there will be.
Earth is a realm, not a planet. It is not an object, therefore, has no edge. Earth would be more easily defined as a system environment. Earth is also a machine, it is a Tesla coil. The sun and the moon are powered wirelessly with the electromagnetic field (the Aether). This field also suspends the celestial spheres with electromagnetic levitation. Electromagnetic levitation disapproves gravity because the only force you need to counter is the electromagnetic force, not gravity. The stars are attached to the firmament. The universe is simply a marvelous mechanism and the most complex forms of human life, as human beings are nothing but automatic engines controlled by external influence. Indeed we are nothing but waves in space and time which when dissolved exist no more.This is a universe of secrets.
If you want to find the secrets of the universe think in terms of energy, frequency and vibration.
Nikola Tesla

What seems solid to us is actually only a loose net held together by gravitation. Shrunk to the correct size, the distances between these atoms might become leagues, gulfs, aeons. The atoms themselves are composed of nuclei and revolving protons and electrons. One may step down further to subatomic particles. And to what? Tachyons? Nothing? Of cause not, everything in the universe denies nothing; to suggest conclusions to things is one impossibility. If you fell outward to the limit of the universe, would you find a board fence and signs reading dead end? No, you might find something hard and rounded, as the chick must see the egg from the inside. And if you should peak through the shell, what great and torrential light might shine through your hole at the end of space? Might you look through and discover our entire universe is but a part of one atom on a blade of grass? Might you be forced to think that by burning a twig, you incinerate an eternity of eternities? That existence rises not to one infinite but to an infinity of them? The greatest mystery the universe offers is not life but size. Size encompasses life.


Physics is divided into three broad parts; classical physics, quantum physics, relativity. The first branch of physics to be discovered was classical physics. Sir Isaac newton broadly contributed to this branch of physics. His laws of motion describes everything made of, matter moves about.The laws of universal gravitation relate the motion of planets around the sun and gravity. Optics is the physics of light and how it travels through different materials. It explains refraction in prisms, and lenses which are used to focus light. Microscopes. Telescopes are used to observe stars, planets and other objects in the depth of the space and develop astrophysics and cosmology. Optics is closely related to the theory of waves which explains how energy can travel through disturbances either ripples through the surface of the pond, or sound in the air. Electromagnetism is the description of electric fields and magnetic fields. James clerk Maxwell derived the rules of electromagnetism. He realized that light was an electromagnetic wave. Electromagnetism also explains electricity. Classical mechanics is related to newton’s laws and covers the properties and motion of solid objects. How they move and forces at them, what takes place when they are joined together like in gears. Fluid mechanics is the descriptions of flows of liquids and gases. Enables one to work out how much lift is generated in aero plane wings or aerodynamic cars. Fluid mechanics is mostly complicated because the motion of tiny things like molecules can get really complex. This leads us to chaos theory. Chaos theory is the description of large complex systems and how small differences in the initial conditions can lead to very different final outcomes. Thermodynamics is the description of energy and how it passes from one form to another. It also includes entropy which is the measure of order and disorder and explain how useful different kinds of energy are. Energy is a fundamental property to physics.
For a long time now humans have been trying to unlock the mysteries of how the universe works. We had succeeded by coming up with a set of laws that describes the clarity and motion of galaxies, planets and stars. The picture of the universe we had around 1900 told us we lived in a universe where everything run clockwise. If we could measure everything accurately the future was predetermined. However there were few holes in experiments. The orbit of mercury was slightly too fast, and strange phenomena took place on the smallest of scales with electrons of light. This led to physicist inventing new physics, relativity and quantum physics. Later it was known that things are a lot fuzzier due to discovery of a revolutionary new set of laws that have completely changed our picture of the universe. These laws have redefined our understanding of reality from the large universes to sub atomic particles. These are the laws of quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanics rules over every atom in every piece of matter. Down to the quantum level, the smallest of the scales, the laws that govern this small atomic realm appear completely different from the laws that govern every day object we see.
The quantum laws were discovered not long ago while scientist thought that they had it all figured out. The rules that govern how planets orbit the sun ; how a ball arcs trough the sky ; how ripples move across the surface of a tone . These laws were all spelled out in a series of equations called classical mechanics. Classical mechanics allowed people to predict the behavior of things with certainty which made sense then. 100 years ago, scientist faced a challenge trying to explain the unusual properties of light.
The light under experiment was particularly the kind of light that glowed from gases when they were heated in a glass tube. When observed through a prism, straight distinct lines of specific colors were observed. Niels Bohr through the Bohr model, suggested that atoms resemble solar systems with electrons revolving around a nucleus and can only move in fixed orbits. When an atom is heated, its electrons are disturbed and can leap from one orbit to another. Each downward leap would emit energy in the form of light in specific wavelengths explaining why atoms produce specific colors. This is termed as quantum leap. The electrons leaped directly from one energy level to the other without moving through the space in between. Bohr argued that the quantum leap arises from the fundamental property of electrons in atoms that their energy comes in discrete masses that cannot be split. The specific minimum quantities are called quanta. This explained why electrons could occupy specific energy levels.
The double slit experiment, when performed showed that light particles and matter can display characteristics of both waves well defined by classical mechanics and particles. Electrons were thrown by an electron gun at two slits and interference/strips pattern observed on a screen including at the space between the two slits that is blocked. A physicist Max born, created the Born Rule theory that there exist a probability wave. The size of the wave at any location provided the possibility of the electron being there. Where the wave is large, that’s where the electron is most likely to be. When a single electron is thrown by the electron gun, one can never predict where it would land. Using the Heisenberg equation of motion, to find the electron’s probability wave, one is able to predict with great certainty that if enough electrons are thrown, a certain percent would end up at specified positions.
All matter is made of atoms and sub atomic particles that are ruled by probability and not certainty. Niels Bohn believed that before measurement or observing a particle, its characteristics are not certain. The act of measurement forces a particle to relinquish all the possible places they could have been and select only one definite location where you find it. The act of measurement forces the particle to make that choice.


Plastics are synthetic polymers made up of tiny organic monomers joined by covalent bonds into a long c

hain during polymerization. Polyethylene terepthalate commonly known as PET is the main type of plastic used globally.

PET was first synthesized during the 1940s by Dupont chemists while searching for polymers that could be used to manufacture new textile fibers. In 1973, Nathaniel C. Wyeth a Dupont engineer first produced a PET plastic bottle. Since then, PET has rapidly been used in plastic products hence very large quantities of PET are introduced into the environment through production and disposal causing its accumulation in the environment.

Long lasting plastic is now a global concern as it builds up in ecosystems causing various health problems in humans. About 311 million tons of plastic are produced yearly with only 10% recycled, approximately 57 million of plastic waste is released into the environment. Micro plastics and large fragments are now found across the globe in oceans and terrestrial environment.

Over the years, a few cases of biological degradation of PET have been discovered by researchers worldwide. This involves certain bacteria and fungi found capable of degrading Polyethylene terephthalate. In 2016, researchers in Japan discovered a new Gram- negative bacterium Ideonella sakaiensis able to feed on plastic. The bacterium latches itself onto PET surface using thin tubes and releases a protein able to partially degrade PET to obtain carbon and energy source.

The bacterium has two enzymes involved in plastic degradation. One enzyme is secreted outside its cells and it rapidly breaks down PET polymer into small monomers (mono-2-hydroxyethyl terephthalate MHET) to obtain carbon for growth. The other enzyme MHET hydrolase hydrolyses MHET after it is taken up into the cell and breaks it down into ethylene glycol and terephthalic acid.

Due to its plastic feeding abilities, researchers agreed that the I. sakaiensis might be valuable in plastic waste cleanup, however, introducing this bacteria into the ecosystem for plastic degradation cannot be done as it would endanger other species hence plastic degradation can only be done in the laboratory.


Plastic is the major cause of pollution on the water bodies, land and also the air. Biopol is a new type of plastic that has advantages over the present plastic known to be non-biodegradable. It is as durable and water resistant as other plastic. Its main advantage is that it degrades in compost and liquids, with or without oxygen. It can disappear

completely in a matter of weeks in sewage. Biopol can be recycled from waste after consumers have finished with products.
In future, biopol can be made into a wide range of products, such as bottles and fibres. This will be particularly useful in the future as they are biodegradable products. This include all home and industrial products that find their way into water systems and rubbish sites.


Several systems used electronic and computation technology to provide augmentative communication system which can be adapted to a wide range of individual needs like the light writer, a computer and some others.

One of the best known augmentative communication systems was by use of Toshiba 1200XE computer. It runs a program called equalizer which moves a cursor across wordlist in the upper part of the screen. The movement can be stopped by pressing a switch and this selects words which are then printed on the lower part of the screen. When the person has built up a sentence, he ‘speaks’ it by sending it to a synthesizer. A whole lecture can be delivered in this way, sentence by sentence.
A person can also save what he writes on disk and thus can produce books, papers, lectures and other material. The program allows people to write equations in words, which are the translated into symbols and printed out appropriately.
Extra features were added to the basic system in the 1990’s. A mobile telephone allowed a person to make and receive a call through the computer. You write a sentence using equalizer and send it to the synthesizer which is connected to the phone. Separate commands tell the synthesizer to ‘pick up’ and ‘put down’ the phone. One was also able to send and receive email.